THE GOOD NEWS, BAD NEWS, AND PITFALLS OF LED LIGHTING
Let’s start with a common question. What is an LED? An LED is a light emitting diode. Where can they be used? Almost anywhere. The good news is that they last up to 50% longer than incandescent lights, 20 -25 times longer than halogen and 8 – 10 times longer than CFL bulbs. Used 12 hours a day a 50,000 hour bulb will last 11 years.
So what’s the bad news? Well the fact is not every light is created the same. When shopping for LED lights we see huge variances in price, wattage, and guarantees. There are quite a few products that aren’t built to last. It all starts with the chips they are what actually generate light in an LED bulb. The type, quality, and arrangement of the chips are of critical importance. They are usually mounted onto a layer of heat conducting material. This is usually called the wafer. Quality chips are specifically designed for high output and color consistency that is needed for general lighting. They are very different than those used for low light output. The chips fall across a wide range of color temperatures and light outputs. They are sorted by manufactures in bins. The bins with the highest consistency in color and light output are more expensive to buy. The most reputable manufacturers will only work with these high quality chips. Other manufactures will use the lower rated chips in their products. The result will be a low light output.
Power management – or driver is what converts the voltage and current coming into the LED chip to generate light. It works like traditional ballast and if the system is designed poorly the chip can be over powered, resulting in early failure, and underpowered resulting in low light output, increased amps and failure. Check your power coming into the fixture. This way the supplier cannot blame the failure on you.
Heat management- LED bulbs generate heat and the heat must be carried away from the bulb. This is usually accomplished by a heat sink. A lot of different heat sinks are used to carry this heat away from the lights. Aluminum finning is the most popular. Make sure they are well ventilated.
Lens- directs the light to where is going to be needed and vary in design.
Primary concerns – Up front cost and quality assurance. The most important is the light output. Before signing large contracts have them do a demo for you. Check the light out puts against the existing lights. Check your voltage and document it with both parties signatures agreeing its acceptable. Check your contract in some cases the bulb may be under warranty and you will have to pay for the labor.
The good news is that LED lights are getting cheaper as more are being made. The Depart of Energy is creating standards for us to follow similar to what we see on incandescent lighting today. Remember you get what you pay for.
A technican gets called for a room getting to hot. He finds the fan is running on the dx r-22 unit , so he goes outside to check on the condenser. He sees the compressor is running and then shutting off. he looks at the condensor fan and it is running really slow. what is the problem?
Beginning with this month’s electric bill, you will see a charge called the PBF Surcharge (Public Benefits Fund Surcharge).
The Hawaii Public Utilities Commission (PUC) recently approved this surcharge to collect funds that will be used to pay for future energy-efficiency programs, including customer incentives such as rebates, to reduce electricity consumption in Hawaii .
The programs will be administered by a third party administrator, reporting to the PUC. The PBF Surcharge may be adjusted by the PUC and the amount may be offset to some extent by a decrease in the IRP Cost Recovery Surcharge.
Please click here to see the attached for answers to the questions below.
What is this new line on the bill that says PBF Surcharge?
Why do I have to pay this new charge?
Will it always be this amount or will it change each month?
What does Hawaiian Electric do with this money?
Isn’t this just like another rate increase?
Haven’t we already been paying for the incentives? Why is there now another charge?
Is this surcharge going to be there forever or is it just this year? Does it ever go away?
Why is it based on how much electricity you use? Why not charge a flat amount for everyone?
From Green to Gray – Soaring with Sustainability and Crashing in Defeat Over Reality
Today owners buy into the aspect of a high performance building to later find that the well spent money is not providing the return on investment or any other benefits. In a recent study, it has been shown that after implementation, a drastic decline in performance results in buildings from the lack of education of property managers and facility managers on their new systems. Owners can expect savings of up to 10-15 percent in energy efficiency with improvements in building maintenance. The lack of continuous commissioning stalls the results. When property managers and facility managers don’t understand their energy management systems and how they work – they fail to work. Without realizing the full potential of the systems, the systems become useless and provide very little savings.Savings in buildings could be reduced by 40 percent with the right operational strategies in place.
Achieving true sustainability requires continuous commissioning and education. Owners and operators must be educated so that they can evaluate building decisions based on life – cycle costing. Monitoring systems and comparing utility costs provides valuable information and states exactly how things are going in relation to energy reduction. High performance buildings require specialized maintenance. Unfortunately, it can be deferred. When deferred, all the costs increase as well. Education will always be cheaper and provide the best results.
Check out ASHRAE Technical Resource Group (TRG) 7, Tools for Sustainable Building Operations, Maintenance and Cost Analysis.
ALERTON WEBTALK -Bactalk Product has mobile access. I have accessed through the following platforms.
Yes to Pocket PC
Yes to IE Windows Mobile v7.0
Yes to Apple OS. Supports the Safari browser on the Macintosh. Tested with Mac OS X Version 10.4.8 (Tiger), JRE Version 1.5.0_06, and Safari Version 2.0.4 (419.3) Yes to Firefox 3.0
My thoughts and experience with Campus Wide Access. Nothing beats a BACNET/IP connection through a laptop especially if your campus is already setup with enterprise wide Wireless Hot Spot access. BYUH is a prime example of a Facilities expanding their Alerton Controls through this media. The Handhelds or Phone is OK but limited and not a duplicate of what is on your front-end BAS Server. WEBTALK supports PDAs and Windows Mobile devices and smartphones. Again nothing beats access through Laptop or PC. At BYUH email alarms through smtp via their Nextel phones is all they need and when alarms happen, their Envision for Bactalk BACNET/IP enabled client PCs are used for complete interface. They saved $$ this way in lieu of our WEBTALK hardware.
My thoughts and experience with Web Access. Setting up a VPN with the campus IT dept. and employing Remote Desktop or comparable to access the system from all over the world( Ive accessed and programmed from Guam and the Philippines with no lag- Solid Internet Access was the key) gives you operation as well as full programming capabilites and with current technology, makes propietary software a thing of the past and is more secure and versatile since the Campus IT Dept's Security is the Gatekeeper.
Working with MIS/IT Dept. is the key. For PPTP: The server will allow you to have up to 254 outside connections at any given time. If your ISA Server has a Forefront TMG you can have a max of up to 1000 simultaneous connections.
Web Access through a Centralized Server that is specialized to handle web page duties and a Front-end Server managing all Global Controllers and their unitary controllers is still the way to go in my opinion. Putting all your eggs one basket...yikes...Global controllers should only be working to Manage their specific site duties and not be bogged down by serving up web pages. This is what the Central Web Server/Front- End Server should be doing and with good IT practice and PC maintenance, it is the easiest, most reliable and the least costly to maintain. One Internet connection instead of multiple internet access nodes at each global controller equates to ease of tshooting by dileneating Enterprise Ethernet issues and BAS Specific Controls.
Our Web Appliance- WEBtalk can have up to 150 simultaneous connections. No extra client "seat purchases" required. This product works with the Envision for Bactalk Bacnet Product Line, is Linux Based- Apache Server OS to add yet another layer of piece of mind from Windows haters and is made for Operator ACCESS with no way of outside access to programming. This Feature should never be sold; as programming should only be under the watchful eyes or with permission of the owner/facilities team ( through VPN Remote control or On-Site programming). The customer is ultimately the keeper of the key.
Alerton is coming out with Web Enabled Global Controllers soon for sites/projects that require this in their spec and we will be BETA testing Wireless controls soon; which in my view is more valuable to potential customers than something that has already been done. Web Access can be served up many ways. Alerton has the easiest and possibly cheapest to deploy...then again I'm biased. I've never had to deal with Webtalk and Web aaccess issues ... the oldest system out there is the first generation released back in late 2001.
Have a great week
Director of Engineering
Hawaii Energy Systems, LLC
2290 Alahao Place, Suite # 300
Honolulu, HI 96819
In cooperation with local, state, Federal Regulations and national associations many guidelines and regulations have been written to address both electrical inspections and energy managements programs. At all times the local, state and federal regulations must be meet to insure compliancy with all the organizations. These guidelines are only to be used to help meet the other requirements through an organized auditing process.
Applicable codes, standards and references should be used and some are listed below:
§National Electrical Code - NEC
§National Electrical Manufactures Association – NEMA
§American Society for testing and Materials – ASTM Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers
§National Electrical Testing Association – NETA
§American National Standards Institute – ANSI
§State and local ordinances
§Insulated Power Cable Engineers Associated – IPCEA
§Association of Edison Illuminating Companies
§OSHA Part 1910: Subpart S, 1910.308
Other organizations may be involved as well and are listed below
Occupational Safety and Health Association
Hawaii Department of labor
Hawaii Department of Health
Environmental Protection Agency
Electrical Industry Standards
All electrical inspections shall be conducted by a responsible person and shall utilize all manufactures instruction manuals applicable to each piece of equipment that will be electrical energized. All personnel shall utilize NFPA 70E requirements when working on electrical equipment.
All equipment found defective shall be reported to the proper building manager. The inspector shall maintain a written report of all tests and present a certified final test report. Any equipment found to be defective will be repaired before any final testing is completed that may skew the reporting statistics. The following test guidelines will be followed and the testing report shall include the following:
Summary of project
Description of the equipment
Description of test
Conclusions and Recommendations
Appendix, including appropriate test forms
List of test equipment used and calibration dates
Safety and Precautions
Safety practices will be adhered to and not limited to the following requirements:
§Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 –OSHA
§Accident Prevention Manual for Industrial Operations, Seventh Edition, National Safety Council, Chapter 4.
Applicable State and local safety operating procedures
§NETA Safety/Accident Prevention Program
§Owner’s Safety practices
§National Fire Protection Association, NFPA 70E.
All tests shall be performed with the apparatus de-energized except where otherwise specifically required by the nature of the test.
Power circuits shall have conductors shorted to ground by a hot line grounded device approved for the purpose.
All work in all cases shall not proceed until all safety precautions have been investigated and established.
The following programs should be available for each building.
Historical data shows that 44% of motor failures are due to overloads and single-phasing.(Cooper/Bussman’s Protection Handbook Bulletin http://www.bussman.com/library/docs/spd02/SPDSection11.pdf)
This can be serious, especially since a problem isn’t detected until the motor fails.When that happens, which unfortunately may be on the weekend or night when it is difficult to get a repairman, the consequences may include inconvenience, loss of revenue, extensive repair costs, or irate customers.
What Causes Overloads
Overloads are caused by excessive load on a motor.This results in current that exceeds the
(full load amp) ampacity rating of the motor, resulting in overheating and damage to the motor.Some causes are improperly sized motors or changes in the loads.
What Causes Single Phasing
Voltage imbalance means that the voltage between the phases isn’t equal.Single phasing is the worst condition of voltage imbalance because one phase is lost (open) and the current in the other two phases increase to keep the motor running.The result is overheating and a burnt out motor.
Some causes are damaged motor starter contact, damaged switch or circuit breaker, open fuse in the circuit breaker, cable failure on the transformer primary or secondary side, or poor connections in terminals (Bussman, p5).